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Gaspard de Robles, enige vijand die een standbeeld verdient
1527 - 1585
Geduchte vijand van de watergeuzen

Caspar de Robles...

Was a son of João Lopes of Robles, gentleman of San Juan, mister of the house and palace of Robles, in Portugal, where was settled although his ancestry was Spaniard, and of Maria of Leyte, nursemaid of Felipe II. He was born in Portugal the year of 1527, although we ignore the place and date, that will resolve al to consult soon his expedinete of income in the Order of Santiago. He had al except a brother, Melchor, also gentleman of Santiago and MdC of Infª Spanish, that died in the help of Malta (1565). He married in 1559 with Jeanne of St. Quentin, baroness of Billy and lady of It Number, Escout, St. Mein, Malpart and Vieufville, daughter of Philippe of St. Quentin, baron and mister of you said places, and of Florence of Warluzel. In her had, al less, three children males: Juan, Felipe and Carlos, that served all al king of Spain. The barony of Billy, al south of Lille, was found in the Artois; at present, united to Montigny, form the locality of Billy-Montigny, in Pair of Calais (62420, France). Nevertheless, in previous appointments al personage (R&D), had come identifying the señorio as Willies, in Thièrache, place of the marquedado of Trelon.

Although the services of Gaspar are evident in a memorial that directed to the cut its son Felipe in 1589, has not been precise to consult it to reconstruct them in substance, al less since 1557, in which sent a Walloon company in the day of San Quintin and subsequently in that of Gravelines (14-VII-1558). After the peace with France (1559) was appointed lieutenant of governor of Philippeville and, al to pass Schwendi al service of the emperor (1661), happened him in said government. The eve of the Christmas of 1568, the Duke of Dawn extended him a patent to weigh a regiment of 5 companies of Infª Walloon, that passed his first sample March 15, said year. With him he took part in the immediate campaign of Dawn in Friesland and in the battle of Jemmingen (21-VII-1568). Then, the regiment remained of garrison in Groningen, plaza of the one that was named governor (1-2-1569) and where built the new fortress, on the plans of Bartolomeo Campi. The works began with the south bulwark, August 1, 1569, without being demolished the previous one until was finished the new one.

In August of 1572, after the lifting of the «gueux», weighed 5 new companies to enlarge its regiment to 10 cia. That same year was named general captain of Friesland, transferring its residence to Leeuwarden. The 4-1-1575, their 10 flags they were found distributed between Friesland and the Pies of Groningen, being entertained with helps to account of the contributions of the provinces; all they added 1500 men. A year later, with the same companies, their troops reached the 2000 men, whose price elevated to 5888 monthly shields.

After the death of Requesens, the government of the Netherlands remained in the hands of a Counsel of State that called to the general States to fall immediately under the aegis of Guillermo of Nassau. Soon the proscripción of the soldiers of the king was declared, that responded taking Antwerp and being fortified in its plazas. Gaspar tried that its men maintained the fidelity al king, but the 24-11-1576 its officials informed said Counsel that had arrested because wanted to subtract them to its authority. The Counsel approved the conduct of the rebels and, in February of 1577, they gave the coronelía to Frédéric Perrenot, mister of Champagnie, brother of the Cardinal Granvela. Since then, the regiment fought against the king of Spain, but was undone in the battle of Gembloux (31-1-1578).

Gaspar, that recovered the liberty along 1577, went to Namur (Namen) to be united with Don Juan of Austria and arrived on time to take part in happiness battles. In fact, had been he who advised him, against the to seem of the majority, that removed al army of the plaza and he went against the troops of the States to avoid his union with the protestant reinforcements that brought from Germany the cross-eyed prince. In 1579 he weighed in Luxembourg a new regiment, now of low German infantry, that retained to his death, although never he sent him personally, since he continued exercising of counselor of the duke of Parma, on the one that he enjoyed the same ancestor that had had with D. Juan. Thus, in 1581, he managed to dissuade to Farnesio of his idea of he faced al duke of Alençon to dispute him the step to Cambrai, being withdrawn to Valenciennes. Although the plaza finished being lost, but face to have left the loss of that army with the one that Alejandro would manage to re-establish the real authority on 12 of the old 17 provinces of the Netherlands. Precísamente, its new regiment of Germans, that sent the Tcol. Juan Baptist of Tassis, had a part very assets in the recovery of Friesland (1580), although said province would finish being lost in 1594.

It died during the siege of Antwerp, the same one I gave that the Dutch reached the bridge that Farnesio tendia to close the Scalds with an explosive ship. Its corpse was found al I gave following, without injuries. Probably, the blast threw him al Scalds, where died drowned.

OF STIENEN MAN (THE MAN OF STONE) Probably be Gaspar of Robles the only soldier of the king of Spain that have a monument in Holland. He is in the port of Harlingen and he is very old, therefore he dates from 1576, year in which even he maintained his authority on Friesland, but he surprises the one that is found maintained in his pedestal since then. Perhaps, the plate that appears in his base, he help to explain so long continuance:

To Gaspar (of) Robles, gentleman, mister of Billy, governor of Friesland, Groninga and the adjoining territories. It helped these provinces not sólamente with the weapons, but also with a wise one administration and money. It built this dike, that was found in very badly state, finishing it in three months. The mister Wigle go Swichem, father of the country, helped him and the counselors Igram go Achium, Petrus Fritema and Johannes Carolus attended him with its counsel. It paid the dike of its own money. That this stone, if the disagreements arrive, be the end of every objection. This is what desire all the inhabitants recognized of the province.

So that the colonel is recalled for the construction of a dike, precísamente called the dike of the colonel, a done work in 3 months that was going to last nothing less than 4 centuries. Although I suppose that remozado, the certain thing is that until 1965 was not sustituído for one new and, up till then, the monument was maintained in its place, though was not the same one. In 1774, almost at the age of 200 of its erection, the head was replaced by another new one, copied of the preexistente, and in 1833 was renewed and expanded its base, that had 4 faces instead of the two primitive; then were installed two plates in the two new faces and the two original were renewed: an ortientada al N (in Dutchman, that we have translated further up) and the other al (In latin). In they said year of 1965 was dismantled completely, while the new dike was manufactured; but once finished this, was reconstructed in the new court summons, that is the one that at present has. In the Network can be consulted a complete and more detailed history of the monument, written by Ids Bruinsma (in Dutchman) : www.oud-harlingen.nl/stienenman.html

THE ATLAS OF ROBLES we have spoken of the monument that its contemporaries raised to the memory of Gaspar of Robles, but is also just to do it of the one that bequeathed us. He is a matter of a collection of 60 flat manuscripts of cities, villages and hardly of the Netherlands, raised between 1570 and 1584. Forty of them they are conserved in the File of State of Saxony, in Dresden, and the remainders in the Univerisidad of Tiles (Arlington and Austin). Most of the plans they were delineated by Italian engineers during their phase of governor, corresponding to places of the province of Friesland (Leeuwarden, Harlingen, Stavoren, Sneek, Bolsward, Makkum, Hindelopen, Sloten, Lemmer) and of Overijssel (Vollenhove, Kampen, Zwolle, etc). There is besides, 8 views gentlemen of their battles against the gueux in territory frisón. The state File of Friesland published some years ago the Dutch outright collection in a titled volume Of Robles atlassen. Leeuwarden: Rijksarchief in Friesland, 1998

(Bron Tercio's)
Meer foto's slag bij Groenlo 1627, nagespeeld op 21, 22 en 23 oktober 2005 Klik hier
Zie ook: Gaspar de Robles in Losser
Foto's Marcel Tettero voor De Twentsche Courant Tubantia